Wind energy potential in Serbia
The potential of renewable energy resources including wind energy is very significant and exceeds3.8 Mtoe. Today, renewable sources make 7% of total energy sources, with 32% of electric energy being produced in hydro power plants. Strategy of Energy sector development until 2015 has made strengthening alternative energy sources a priority issue. In accordance to that Agency for Energy Efficiency was founded in 2005, which coordinates projects with the municipalities and other relevant bodies. Regarding the legal framework, Law on Energy is regulating energy sector and alternative energy sources, and is the only regulation in this area. It defines privileged status for producers of alternative energy resources which have priority for subsidizes, tax, customs and other incentives according to the law and according to other customs and tax regulations.
It is estimated that there is a technologically justified wind potential of around 0.2 million tons of oil equivalent in Serbia, which could replace 10% of total electric energy consumption. However this potential is still to be exploited, as this energy sector is under development. With current technology levels in Serbia total capacities of wind generators, which could be implemented in electro-energy system in Serbia, is about 1300MW of installed power, which is approximately 15% of total energy capacity of Serbia. These capacities could potentially produce about 2.3 TWh of electric energy annually. Areas of major wind power potential in Serbia, identified by the survey, are Jastrebac, Stara planina, Kopaonik, Juhor, Suva planina, Tupižnica, Krepoljina, Ozren, Vlasina, as well as territory of city of Vršac.2 Especially interesting for foreign investors is Vojvodina with almost two thirds of it has wind speed that exceeds 4 m/s, and the needed constant level of 5 m/s could be found in several locations: Vršac (as leading with 6.27) m/s, Bela Crkva, Inđija, Irig, kikinda, Sombor, Novi Sad and Sremska Mitrovica.
State organized projects in this area were never initiated, as this sector is left for private investors.
Opening of several small companies producing equipment for windmills that has never been plugged into energy network followed this. Interest of foreign investors is risen just recently when the first windmill farm started being built in Inđija (11 windmills, total power of 25 MW worth 30 million EUR). This project is being performed in close cooperation with Inđija Municipality and Austrian investor.
Regions in Serbia with locations potentially suitable for the construction of wind generators are:
1. Eastern parts of Serbia – Stara Planina, Ozren , Vlasina, Rtanj, Deli Jovan, Crni Vrh, etc. There are locations in these regions with average wind velocity vav > 6m/s, which corresponds to the power of Pav=(300-400) W/m2. This area covers about 2000 km2 and in the future about 2000 MW of installed wind generator power might be built here;
2. Pester, Zlatibor, Zabljak, Bjelasica, Kopaonik and Divcibare are mountain regions which abound in winds, where measurements may be taken and appropriate suitable micro locations found (at altitudes over 800 m) for the construction of wind generators;
3. Pannonian Plain, north of Danube, i.e. wider region of the territory where kosava wind blows also abounds in winds. This area covers about 2000 km2 and is suitable for the construction of wind generators because the basic infrastructure already exists, from roads to electricity grid, and also because of the vicinity of big centers of electric energy consumption, and the like. In future, it would be possible to install there about (1500-2000) MW of wind generator capacities;