The progress of the Republic of Serbia in the development of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) Project, Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Serbia

, Mining

The Kyoto Protocol is a part of international Agreement on climate changes that is made with the aim of reducing carbon dioxide and other gasses emission that cause the effect of the green house. It has been ready for the signing on December, 11th 1997 in the Japanese city Kyoto, in the organization of United Nations Convention for climate changes. Serbia accepted this document on September 24. By its application the emission of six dangerous gasses leading to the greenhouse gasses effects shall be decreased. During the last few decades their concentration in the atmosphere increased due to the using fossil fuels in the industry and in the traffic. That contributed to the global warming and noticeable climate changes.

With the aim of fulfilling the obligations under the Kyoto protocol, the Republic of Serbia joined the European line of renewable energy sources application. Priority strategic activities were determined for the mitigation of climate changes, and also a state strategy for application of the mechanisms of ecological development in the Republic of Serbia was made. The Strategy deals with the fields of Waste Management, Agriculture and Forestry. The National body for implementing the clean development mechanisms in Serbia was formed by the Ministry of environmental protection and spatial planning. It is responsible for issuing of the approval for the activities on the projects within the mechanisms of ecological development.

The application of the renewable energy sources within the energy sector is an essential indicator of a sustainable development that ensures the increase in energy efficiency. However, the energy production from biomass,which has great perspective as the resource in Serbia, is at the moment focused only on the pellets. Renewable energy in our country has great potential. According to the experts’ estimation, we have over 800 locations that are favorable for building of small hydro power plants,however,only 60 projects got the approval for their building. Work on the projects is often stopped because it is hard to get passingresultfor the Environmental Impact Study, and also the great problem is financing of the building and purchase of the equipment. Among the companies that submitted project proposals for the clean development mechanisms i.e. electricity production from biomass or building small power plants, wind parks and wind farms, is “Electric Power Industry of Serbia” that applied for building the third block in the TPP “Nikola Tesla” and for the completing the building of TPP “Kolubara B”. As a good example in that regard, the facility for generating bio gas from biomass located in Vrbas can be mentioned. It was built in 2001 as a first facility of this type and operates within the agricultural Company “Savo Kovačević”. The investments used for building and equipping the facility amounted to five and a half million EUR. Gas produced in this way is going to be used for generation of both heat and electricity.

The example for reduction of greenhouse gasses emission by the combustion of bio gas can be found also in the project for establishing , building and use of the regional landfill “Duboko” that would be in the proper and legally regulated manner used for communal waste disposal from the municipalities of Užice, Bajina Bašta, Arilje, Čajetina, Kosjerić, Lučani, Ivanjica and Čačak. In accordance with the procedures, activities on closing the waste dumps in Užice,Požega and Čačak are currently under way. The Project includes investments in the systems for collecting gasses and purchase of the equipment for methane combustion, which would significantly reduce the health risk of the inhabitants that are settled near the waste dumps and would improve quality of their lives. The existing waste dumps should be shut off in the next three years because all of them fail both in terms of meeting the sanitary landfill standard and applying environmental protection measures.  They do not have a system for ground waters protection from dangerous matters infiltration, and the monitoring of the in filtration and ground and surface waters quality was not conducted. In cooperation with local utility companies in the period to come primary selection of waste is going to be performed on the spot of generation, which implies separation of waste in the households to paper, plastics, and other communal waste.

There is a great need for the realization of the projects that would help the environmental protection in Serbia. One of the aims of protection is reduction of harmful gasses in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol. Success of the project is important for the further implementation of the national Strategy, not only on the state level but also on the level of local communities.